The origin is from the industrialization in England and the spread form France that got out in Europe around Instead of being all romantic, idyllic and exaggerate, the realism showed the objective and realistic description of the society. During this time the people were more aware of thing that happened around the world.
Included under the broad umbrella of realism are a diverse set of authors, including Henry James, W. Often categorized as regionalists or local colorists, many of these writers produced work that emphasized geographically distinct dialects and customs.
Others offered satirical fiction or novels of manners that exposed the excesses, hypocrisies, or shortcomings of a culture undergoing radical social change. A subsequent generation of writers, including Stephen Crane, Frank Norris, Theodore Dreiser, Edith Wharton, and Jack London, are most often cited as the American inheritors of the naturalist approach practiced by Emile Zola, whose treatise Le Roman Experimental applied the experimental methods of medical science to the construction of the novel.
Governed by a combination of heredity, environment, and chance, the typical characters of naturalist fiction find themselves constrained from achieving the transcendent goals suggested by a false ideology of romantic individualism.
Over the past century, critics and literary historians have alternately viewed realist and naturalist texts as explicit condemnations of the economic, cultural, or ethical deficiencies of the industrialized age or as representations of the very ideological forces they purport to critique.
More recently, the emergence of deconstructive, Marxist, and new historicist criticism in the s afforded a revised, and often skeptical, reevaluation of realism and naturalism as more conflicted forms, itself defined or constructed by hegemonic forces and offering insight into lateth- and earlyth-century ideologies of class, race, and gender.
In particular, efforts to provide large-scale summaries reflect the attention to social problems in s, and the influence of—and reaction to—post-structuralism and cultural criticism in the s.
In all cases, however, comprehensive hypotheses about the nature of realism and naturalism remain grounded, to a large extent, in the political, economic, and cultural history of the late 19th century.
KaplanBorusand Bell each make valuable contributions to the new historicist reexamination of naturalism. Murphy offers one of the few comprehensive accounts of realism within dramatic literature. The Problem of American Realism: Studies in the Cultural History of a Literary Idea. University of Chicago Press, The Ferment of Realism: In this light, establishes forceful reading of realist novels as varied statements of outrage and opposition to the increasing materialism, disorder, and perceived moral decay in the years leading up to World War I.
Howells, James, and Norris in the Mass Market. University of North Carolina Press, Explores Howells, James, and Norris in detail, with some attention to other writers, including compelling discussions of the publishing industry, literary celebrity, and rise of the political novel. The Social Construction of American Realism.
Among the more influential new historicist interventions. The Novel in an Age of Transition. University of Wisconsin Press, Describes the philosophical and cultural assumptions that helped shape these movements and traces their development throughout the 20th century.
At times polemical in its dismissal of post-structuralist or materialist rereadings see, for example, Kaplan ; Howard or Michaelsboth cited under Philosophy, History, and Formnonetheless immensely useful and readable synthesis of key ideas. American Realism and American Drama, — Cambridge University Press, Addresses the scant attention paid to the theater in the scholarship on realism.
The Beginnings of Critical Realism in America, — Southern Illinois University Press, Collects a variety of essays that construct a coherent portrait of the movements and their defining tensions.The introduction to Realism and Naturalism should provide a basic understanding of what these two kinds of literature are, and how they differ, but some additional comments might help to make this distinction more clear.
Taine's English translator renders this phrase as "race, epoch, and surroundings" Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine. Realism and Naturalism in Nineteenth-Century American Literature.
Rev. ed. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, Naturalism, in literature and the visual arts, late 19th- and early 20th-century movement that was inspired by adaptation of the principles and methods of natural science, especially the Darwinian view of . Realism was an artistic movement that began in France in the s, after the Revolution.
Realists rejected Romanticism, which had dominated French literature and art since the late 18th century. Realism revolted against the exotic subject matter and the exaggerated emotionalism and drama of the Romantic movement.
It is often thought that realism is a particular tendency of Victorian fiction, and it is certainly significant that the earliest uses of the word realism to refer to the faithful representation of the real world in literature or art date from the s.
Introduction. Realism and Naturalism are a reaction against Romanticism (imagination, poetry and prose, as well as the main themes: nature, exoticism, history, and heroes depicted as exceptional individuals) because it was thought to have lost touch with the contemporary.