An introduction to the floating point coprocessors

Introduction This page or section is a stub. You can help the wiki by accurately contributing to it. Floating point numbers are a way to represent real numbers inside computer memory which usually operates with binary digits. As opposed to fixed point numbers which have a fixed number of digits before and after the decimal markfloating point numbers can be considered to have a certain amount of significant digits or 'accurate leading numbers' that we consider to carry an accurate approximation to some value.

An introduction to the floating point coprocessors

The DX—Core2 microprocessors contain their own built-in arithmetic coprocessors. Be aware that some of the cloned microprocessors from IBM and Cyrix did not contain arithmetic coprocessors.

The instruction sets and programming for all devices are almost identical; the main difference is that each coprocessor is designed to function with a different Intel microprocessor. This chapter provides detail on the entire family of arithmetic coprocessors.

Because the coprocessor is a part of the DX—Core2, and because these microprocessors are commonplace, many programs now require or at least benefit from a coprocessor. The family of coprocessors, which is labeled the 80X87, is able to multiply, divide, add, subtract, find the square root, and calculate the partial tangent, partial arctangent, and logarithms.

Data types include, and bit signed integers; l8-digit BCD data; and, and bit floating-point numbers. With the improved Pentium coprocessor, operations execute about five times faster than those performed by the microprocessor with an equal clock frequency.

Note that the Pentium can often execute a coprocessor instruction and two integer instructions simultaneously. The Pentium Pro through Core2 coprocessors are similar in performance to the Pentium coprocessor, except that a few new instructions have been added: The multimedia extensions MMX to the Pentium—Core2 are instructions that share the arithmetic coprocessor register set.

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The MMX extension is a special internal processor designed to execute integer instructions at high-speed for external multimedia devices. For this reason, the MMX instruction set and specifications have been placed in this chapter.

See Table 14—1 for a listing of all Intel microprocessors and their companion coprocessors. These data types include signed integer, BCD, and floating-point. Each has a specific use in a system, and many systems require all three data types. In order to accomplish any such modification, the instruction set and some basic programming concepts are required, which are presented in this chapter.

An introduction to the floating point coprocessors

Signed Integers The signed integers used with the coprocessor are the same as those described in Chapter 1. When used with the arithmetic coprocessor, signed integers are worddoubleword integeror bits quadword integer wide. The long integer is new to the coprocessor and is not described in Chapter 1, but the principles are the same.

Conversion between decimal and signed integer format is handled in exactly the same manner as for the signed integers described in Chapter 1. Integer data types are found in some applications that use the arithmetic coprocessor.

Introduction

See Figure 14—1, which shows these three forms of signed integer data. Data are stored in memory using the same assembler directives described and used in earlier chapters. Example 14—1 shows how several different sizes of signed integers are defined for use by the assembler and arithmetic coprocessor.

Each number is stored as an digit packed integer in nine bytes of memory as two digits per byte. The tenth byte contains only a sign-bit for the digit signed BCD number. Figure 14—2 shows the format of the BCD number used with the arithmetic coprocessor.

This form is rarely used because it is unique to the Intel coprocessor. Floating-Point Floating-point numbers are often called real numbers because they hold signed integers, fractions, and mixed numbers.

A floating-point number has three parts: Floating-point numbers are written in scientific binary notation. The Intel family of arithmetic coprocessors supports three types of floating-point numbers: See Figure 14—3 for the three forms of the floating-point number.

Please note that the single form is also called a single-precision number and the double form is called a double-precision number. Sometimes the bit temporary form is called an extended-precision number. The floating-point numbers and the operations performed by the arithmetic coprocessor conform to the IEEE standard, as adopted by all major personal computer software producers.

This includes Microsoft, which in stopped supporting the Microsoft floating-point format and also the ANSI floating-point standard that is popular in some mainframe computer systems.

The float is a bit version, double is the bit version, and decimal is a special version developed for Visual studio that develops a very accurate floating-point number for use in banking transactions or anything else that requires a high degree of precision.

The decimal variable form is new to Visual Studio and Converting to Floating-Point Form.Nov 08,  · Lets an analysis of the floating point coprocessors in the design of a microprocessor in computer science start right off with a controversial claim: Forth is the hackers programming language Coding in Forth is a little bit like writing assembly.

The term floating point is derived from the fact that there is no fixed number of digits before and after the decimal point; that is, the decimal point can float. There are also representations in which the number of digits before and after the decimal point is set, called fixed-point representations.

Floating point number, normalization, exceptions, latency, etc. 1. INTRODUCTION An arithmetic circuit which performs digital arithmetic operations has many applications in digital coprocessors, application specific circuits, etc. Because of the advancements in the . For example, a math coprocessor performs mathematical computations, particularly floating-point operations.

Math coprocessors are also called numeric and floating-point coprocessors. Most computers come with a floating-point coprocessors built in. Note, however, that the program itself must be written to take advantage of the coprocessor.

smart-memory coprocessors to a microprocessor. This Introduction The Data-IntensiVe Architecture (DIVA) project [1][2] is building a workstation-class system using (Integer to floating-point) instruction, the fraction is first converted to sign-magnitude format by conditionally inverting if the sign is negative.

Then the result is shifted. Introduction to Many Integrated Core (MIC) Coprocessors on Stampede. Intel Xeon Phi™ SE10P coprocessors to change the power/performance curves of supercomputing • Over 70% provided by Xeon Phi moderate floating point throughput –2x E on Stampede: Tflop/s, W.

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