Two major parties dominated the political landscape: The Democrats supported the primacy of the Presidency over the other branches of government, and opposed both the Bank of the United States as well as modernizing programs that they felt would build up industry at the expense of the taxpayer.
In various ways, environmentalism claims that living things other than humans, and the natural environment as a whole, are deserving of consideration in reasoning about the morality of political, economic, and social policies.
For discussion of environmental statutes and regulations, including international conventions, see also environmental law. Intellectual underpinnings Environmental thought and the various branches of the environmental movement are often classified into two intellectual camps: It is often characterized by a mechanistic approach to nonhuman nature in which individual creatures and species have only an instrumental value for humans.
The defining feature of anthropocentrism is that it considers the moral obligations humans have to the environment to derive from obligations that humans have to each other—and, less crucially, to future generations of humans—rather than from any obligation to other living things or to the environment as a whole.
Human obligations to the environment are thus indirect.
In contrast to anthropocentrism, biocentrism claims that nature has an intrinsic moral worth that does not depend on its usefulness to human beings, and it is this intrinsic worth that gives rise directly to obligations to the environment.
Humans are therefore morally bound to protect the environment, as well as individual creatures and species, for their own sake. In this sense, biocentrics view human beings and other elements of the natural environment, both living and often nonliving, as members of a single moral and ecological community.
Ganges River; environmentalismWhy, inthe Ganges River and its main tributary, the Yamuna River, were granted human rights. As political leaders gradually came to appreciate the seriousness of environmental problems, governments entered into negotiations in the early s that led to the adoption of a growing number of international environmental agreements.
The division between anthropocentric and biocentric approaches played a central role in the development of environmental thought in the late 20th century.
Whereas some earlier schools, such as apocalyptic survivalist environmentalism and emancipatory environmentalism—as well as its offshoot, human-welfare ecology —were animated primarily by a concern for human well-being, later movements, including social ecology, deep ecologythe animal-rights and animal-liberation movements, and ecofeminism, were centrally concerned with the moral worth of nonhuman nature.
Book cover of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, first published in Emancipatory environmentalism Beginning in the s, many environmentalists attempted to develop strategies for limiting environmental degradation through recyclingthe use of alternative energy technologiesthe decentralization and democratization of economic and social planning, and, for some, a reorganization of major industrial sectors, including the agriculture and energy industries.
Emancipatory environmentalism also was distinguished for some of its advocates by an emphasis on developing small-scale systems of economic production that would be more closely integrated with the natural processes of surrounding ecosystems.
This more environmentally holistic approach to economic planning was promoted in work by the American ecologist Barry Commoner and by the German economist Ernst Friedrich Schumacher. In contrast to earlier thinkers who had downplayed the interconnectedness of natural systems, Commoner and Schumacher emphasized productive processes that worked with nature, not against it, encouraged the use of organic and renewable resources rather than synthetic products e.
See also urban planning ; economic planning. Biocentric schools of thought Social ecology and deep ecology An emphasis on small-scale economic structures and the social dimensions of the ecological crisis also is a feature of the school of thought known as social ecologywhose major proponent was the American environmental anarchist Murray Bookchin.
Social ecologists trace the causes of environmental degradation to the existence of unjust, hierarchical relationships in human society, which they see as endemic to the large-scale social structures of modern capitalist states. Accordingly, they argue, the most environmentally sympathetic form of political and social organization is one based on decentralized small-scale communities and systems of production.
A more radical doctrine, known as deep ecologybuilds on preservationist themes from the early environmental movement. By understanding the interconnectedness of all organisms—including humans—in the ecosphere and empathizing with nonhuman nature, they argue, humans would develop an ecological consciousness and a sense of ecological solidarity.
The biocentric principle of interconnectedness was extensively developed by British environmentalist James Lovelockwho postulated in Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth that the planet is a single living, self-regulating entity capable of reestablishing an ecological equilibriumeven without the existence of human life.
Despite their emphasis on spirituality, some more extreme forms of deep ecology have been strongly criticized as antihumanist, on the ground that they entail opposition to famine relief and immigration and acceptance of large-scale losses of life caused by AIDS and other pandemics.
Animal rights The emphasis on intrinsic value and the interconnectedness of nature was fundamental to the development of the animal-rights movement, whose activism was influenced by works such as Animal Liberationby the Australian philosopher Peter Singerand The Case for Animal Rightsby the American philosopher Tom Regan.
Animal rights approaches go beyond a concern with ill-treatment and cruelty to animalsdemanding an end to all forms of animal exploitation, including the use of animals in scientific and medical experiments and as sources of entertainment e.
Ecofeminists assert that there is a connection between the destruction of nature by humans and the oppression of women by men that arises from political theories and social practices in which both women and nature are treated as objects to be owned or controlled.
Ecofeminists aim to establish a central role for women in the pursuit of an environmentally sound and socially just society. History of the environmental movement Concern for the impact on human life of problems such as air and water pollution dates to at least Roman times. Pollution was associated with the spread of epidemic disease in Europe between the late 14th century and the midth century, and soil conservation was practiced in China, Indiaand Peru as early as 2, years ago.
In general, however, such concerns did not give rise to public activism.Political parties in the United States are mostly dominated by a two-party system consisting of the Democrats and the Republicans.
Though the United States Constitution has always been silent on the issue of political parties since at the time it was signed in there were no parties in the nation. GREEN PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES - The Green Party -- the informal Unlike most of the other political parties on this page with "Socialist" in their names, the SP has always been staunchly anti-communist.
According to the party's official history. The Green Party of Alaska is the state party organization for Alaska of the Green Party of the United States of America.
Alaska was the first state to gain Green Party ballot access, in Ideology: Green politics. Hezbollah, also known as The Party of God, is a radical Shi’a Muslim group fighting against Israel and “western imperialism” in metin2sell.com group does not recognize the legitimacy of the State of Israel and it has labeled as a foreign terrorist organization (FTO) by the U.S.
State Department since October The Progressive Party of America is a political party within the United States of America, the successor to the Green Party.
History Edit. The Green Party was founded in in the state of Maine by a group of several political activists. The Green Party of the United States is a grassroots national party. We're the party for "We The People," the health of our planet, and future generations instead of the One Percent.
We welcome all those who refuse to accept a choice limited to the Two Parties of War and Wall Street.