American neo-isolationists thought that the alliance had outlived its purpose, but moderates of both parties shuddered to think of a world without it and recalled that its function had been not… Historical background After World War II inwestern Europe was economically exhausted and militarily weak the western Allies had rapidly and drastically reduced their armies at the end of the warand newly powerful communist parties had arisen in France and Italy. What became known as the Iron Curtaina term popularized by Winston Churchillhad descended over central and eastern Europe. Further, wartime cooperation between the western Allies and the Soviets had completely broken down.
For more information, please see the full notice. After the destruction of the Second World War, the nations of Europe struggled to rebuild their economies and ensure their security.
The former required a massive influx of aid to help the war-torn landscapes re-establish industries and produce food, and the latter required assurances against a resurgent Germany or incursions from the Soviet Union. The United States viewed an economically strong, rearmed, and integrated Europe as vital to the prevention of communist expansion across the continent.
|America's views on Communism in the s and s by Olivia Shaw on Prezi||Today when Americans think of communism, it brings back memories of a dark time.|
|Communist Party of the United States of America | political party, United States | metin2sell.com||Visit Website Events of the following year prompted American leaders to adopt a more militaristic stance toward the Soviets. In Februarya coup sponsored by the Soviet Union overthrew the democratic government of Czechoslovakia and brought that nation firmly into the Communist camp.|
As a result, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed a program of large-scale economic aid to Europe. The resulting European Recovery Program, or Marshall Plannot only facilitated European economic integration but promoted the idea of shared interests and The united states and natos view on communism in 1950s between the United States and Europe.
Soviet refusal either to participate in the Marshall Plan or to allow its satellite states in Eastern Europe to accept the economic assistance helped to reinforce the growing division between east and west in Europe. In —, a series of events caused the nations of Western Europe to become concerned about their physical and political security and the United States to become more closely involved with European affairs.
Truman to assert that the United States would provide economic and military aid to both countries, as well as to any other nation struggling against an attempt at subjugation. A Soviet-sponsored coup in Czechoslovakia resulted in a communist government coming to power on the borders of Germany.
Attention also focused on elections in Italy as the communist party had made significant gains among Italian voters. Furthermore, events in Germany also caused concern.
The occupation and governance of Germany after the war had long been disputed, and in mid, Soviet premier Joseph Stalin chose to test Western resolve by implementing a blockade against West Berlin, which was then under joint U.
This Berlin Crisis brought the United States and the Soviet Union to the brink of conflict, although a massive airlift to resupply the city for the duration of the blockade helped to prevent an outright confrontation.
These events caused U. To counter this possible turn of events, the Truman Administration considered the possibility of forming a European-American alliance that would commit the United States to bolstering the security of Western Europe.
Signing of the Brussels Treaty The Western European countries were willing to consider a collective security solution.
In response to increasing tensions and security concerns, representatives of several countries of Western Europe gathered together to create a military alliance.
Their treaty provided collective defense; if any one of these nations was attacked, the others were bound to help defend it. At the same time, the Truman Administration instituted a peacetime draft, increased military spending, and called upon the historically isolationist Republican Congress to consider a military alliance with Europe.
Vandenburg proposed a resolution suggesting that the President seek a security treaty with Western Europe that would adhere to the United Nations charter but exist outside of the Security Council where the Soviet Union held veto power.
In spite of general agreement on the concept behind the treaty, it took several months to work out the exact terms. Congress had embraced the pursuit of the international alliance, but it remained concerned about the wording of the treaty.
The nations of Western Europe wanted assurances that the United States would intervene automatically in the event of an attack, but under the U.
Constitution the power to declare war rested with Congress. Negotiations worked toward finding language that would reassure the European states but not obligate the United States to act in a way that violated its own laws. While the European nations argued for individual grants and aid, the United States wanted to make aid conditional on regional coordination.
A third issue was the question of scope. The Brussels Treaty signatories preferred that membership in the alliance be restricted to the members of that treaty plus the United States.
Together, these countries held territory that formed a bridge between the opposite shores of the Atlantic Ocean, which would facilitate military action if it became necessary. President Truman inspecting a tank produced under the Mutual Defense Assistance Program The result of these extensive negotiations was the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty in In this agreement, the United States, Canada, Belgium, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United Kingdom agreed to consider attack against one an attack against all, along with consultations about threats and defense matters.
This collective defense arrangement only formally applied to attacks against the signatories that occurred in Europe or North America; it did not include conflicts in colonial territories. After the treaty was signed, a number of the signatories made requests to the United States for military aid.
Soon after the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the outbreak of the Korean War led the members to move quickly to integrate and coordinate their defense forces through a centralized headquarters. The North Korean attack on South Korea was widely viewed at the time to be an example of communist aggression directed by Moscow, so the United States bolstered its troop commitments to Europe to provide assurances against Soviet aggression on the European continent.
West German entry led the Soviet Union to retaliate with its own regional alliance, which took the form of the Warsaw Treaty Organization and included the Soviet satellite states of Eastern Europe as members. The threat of this form of response was meant to serve as a deterrent against Soviet aggression on the continent.
Although formed in response to the exigencies of the developing Cold War, NATO has lasted beyond the end of that conflict, with membership even expanding to include some former Soviet states.
It remains the largest peacetime military alliance in the world.Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA), also called Communist Party USA, left-wing political party in the United States that was, from its founding in until the latter part of the s, one of the country’s most important leftist organizations.
Its membership reached its. >North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Washington, D.C., providing for mutual aid in case of attack against any member.
On May 8, the West German parliamentary council adopted a constitution, and on May 23 the Federal Republic of Germany came into being.
In October , the two Germanys were united under the terms of the "Final Settlement with Respect to Germany," negotiated by the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in association with the United States, Britain, the Soviet Union and France.
The Washington Treaty of April bound the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Portugal, Norway, Denmark and Iceland into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The September 11 attacks in the United States caused NATO to invoke Article 5 of the NATO Charter for the first time in the organization's history.
The Article says that an attack on any member shall be considered to be an attack on all. The United States, concerned with communism's geopolitical effects, was compelled to establish a foreign policy calling for containment of communism and a domestic policy that called for rooting out communist sympathizers.